A non-communicable disease (NCD) also known as chronic disease is a medical condition or
disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last
for long periods of time and progress slowly. NCDs are the leading cause of death globally. The
WHO has characterized NCDs into four broad categories in decreasing number of deaths
caused by them globally . NCDs are distinguished only by their non-infectious cause, not
necessarily by their duration. Some chronic diseases of long duration, such as HIV/AIDS, are
caused by infections. Chronic diseases require chronic care management as do all diseases that are
slow to develop and of long duration.
3)Chronic Respiratory Diseases
NCDs account for almost two-thirds of all deaths globally, with 80 per cent of these occurring in low- and middle-income countries.In 2012 they caused 68% of all deaths (38 million) up from 60% in 2000.About half were under age 70 and half were women.
People are increasingly exposed to a multiplicity of environmental and social influences, which frequently leads them to adopt unhealthy lifestyle / behaviors that result in a higher risk of NCDs and poor health.Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are usually caused by genetic or lifestyle factors.
NCDs include many environmental diseases covering a broad category of avoidable and
unavoidable human health conditions caused by external factors, such as sunlight, nutrition,
pollution, and lifestyle choices. The diseases of affluence are non-infectious diseases with
environmental causes. Examples include:
• Many types of cardiovascular disease (CVD)
• Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) caused by smoking tobacco
• Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
• Lower back pain caused by too little exercise
• Malnutrition caused by too little food, or eating the wrong kinds of food (e.g. scurvy from lack of Vitamin C)
• Skin cancer caused by radiation from the sun
Genetic disorders are caused by errors in genetic information that produce diseases in the affected
people. The origin of these genetic errors can be:
• Spontaneous errors or mutations to the genome:
• A change in chromosome numbers, such as Down syndrome.
• A defect in a gene caused by mutation, such as Cystic fibrosis.
• An increase in the amount of genetic information, such as Chimerism or Heterochromia.
The WHO's World Health Report 2002 identified five important risk factors for non-communicable
disease in the top ten leading risks to health. These are
• Raised blood pressure
• Raised cholesterol
• Tobacco use
• Alcohol consumption
The other factors associated with higher risk of NCDs include a person's economic and social conditions , also known as the "social determinants of health."
The pressure in the blood vessels (arteries) depends on how hard the heart pumps, and how much resistance there is in the arteries. It is thought that slight narrowing of the arteries increases the resistance to blood flow, which increases the blood pressure. The cause of the slight narrowing of the arteries is not clear. Various factors probably contribute.In some cases, high blood pressure is caused by other conditions.It is then called secondary hypertension. For example, certain kidney or hormone problems can cause high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a risk factor for developing a cardiovascular disease (such as a heart attack or stroke), and kidney damage, sometime in the future. If you have high blood pressure, over the years it may do some damage to your blood vessels (arteries) and put a strain on your heart. In general, the higher your blood pressure, the greater the health risk. But, high blood pressure is just one of several possible risk factors for developing a cardiovascular disease.
Cigarette smoking has long been the greatest cause of NCDs. cigarette smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes: smoking is associated with diabetes incidence and mortality , and smoking cessation has been shown to reduce the risk for developing diabetes among smokers . Additionally, smoking is the most contributable factor in the development and progression of chronic lung disease.
Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risks of chronic liver disease, heart failure, and some types of malignancy. Although moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to be associated with reduced cardiovascular incidence and mortality, excessive alcohol consumption is associated with elevated blood pressure and thus hemorrhagic types of stroke . Moreover, increasing evidence supports that there is no threshold in the adverse effects of alcohol on the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. For these reasons, alcohol drinking of more than one drink per day is not recommended for the purpose of disease prevention.
Being overweight or obese is an important risk factor for all four major NCDs including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic lung disease. Moreover, obesity is a well- known risk factor of diabetes and insulin resistance. The prevalences of obesity and diabetes are increasing concomitantly in Korea . Presumably, the population attributable risk of obesity in cardiovascular disease is increasing, as obesity itself is on the rise and the major forms of cardiovascular disease have changed from hemorrhagic stroke to ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease in Korea. The impact of obesity is also garnering greater attention among cancer prevention efforts as well. Colorectal cancer and female breast cancer are increasing as two major causes of cancer death, and obesity is a major modifiable risk factor of these two malignancies. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that obesity and chronic lung disease are inter-related .
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality, and it has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular and cancer mortality, as well as all-cause mortality . In addition, physical inactivity is a known risk factor for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Korean data also suggests that increased levels of physical activity are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal components of metabolic syndrome.
High blood cholesterol level or hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, as well as peripheral arterial disease . High cholesterol level has been reported to be associated with certain types of malignancy including breast cancer, colon cancer, or prostate cancer, although the cholesterol-cancer relationship is still unclear. High blood cholesterol and diabetes are known to be correlated with each other, yet it is unclear whether hypercholesterolemia contributes to the development of diabetes. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that high triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes .
HYPERTENSION is defined as having blood pressure higher than 140 over 90mmHg,with a consensus
across medical guidelines.
• Nomal blood pressure is below 120 systolic and below 80 diastolic.
• Prehypertension is 120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic.
• Stag 1 high blood pressure(hypertension) is 140-159 systolic or 90-99 diastolic.
• Stage 2 high blood pressure(hypertension) is 160 or higher systolic or 100 or higher diastolic.
• Hypertensive crisis(a medical emergency) is when blood pressure is above 180 systolic or above 110 diastolic.
Hypertension is also a major risk factor for the development of other CVDs like coronary heart diseases and stroke or diabetes.There are also chances of damage to the heart or kidney(organ damage) due to high blood pressure.
• Family History(Genetic)
• Advancing Age
• High Salt Intake
• Activity Level
• Stress Level
• Drinking Habits
• Smoking Habits
• Encourage proper nutrition(fruits and vegetables intake) and reduce salt and fat intake.
• Prevent becoming overweight or obese-weight reduction through proper nutrition and exercise.
• Smoking cessation.
• Avoid drinking a lot of coffee(or other caffeine rich drinks).
• Identify peoplewith risk factors and encourage regular check-ups for possible hypertension and modification of risk factors.
Heart disease also known as Ischemic Heart Disease is a result of plaque buildup in your
coronary arteries -- a condition called atherosclerosis -- that leads to blockages. The arteries,
which start out smooth and elastic, become narrow and stiff. This is the first stage in the
development of plaque, causing the arteries to become rigid, restricting blood flow to
the heart. The heart potentially beomes starved of oxygen. The most concerning part of
coronary artery disease is that the plaque could rupture, leading to a heart attack and
potentially sudden cardiac death. From a young age, cholesterol-laden plaque can start to
deposit in the blood vessel walls. As you get older, the plaque burden builds up, inflaming the
blood vessel walls and raising the risk of blood clots andheart attack. The plaques release
chemicals that promote the process of healing but make the inner walls of the blood vessel
sticky. Then, other substances, such as inflammatory cells, lipoproteins, and calcium that travel
in your bloodstream and become incorporated into the developing plaque in the inner walls of
the blood vessels.
As more and more of these cells are recruited, along with the deposition of cholesterol, these areas grow into bigger and bigger plaque, both pushing the artery walls outward, and growing inward, narrowing the vessel.
Eventually, a narrowed coronary artery may develop new blood vessels that go around the blockage to get blood to the heart. However, during times of increased exertion or stress, the new arteries may not be able to supply enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
In some cases, when a plaque ruptures, a blood clot may totally block the blood supply to the heart muscle, causing heart attack.
• Most common cause :atherosclerosis
• Atherosclerosis usually occurs when a person has high level of cholesterol in the blood.
• In diabetes mellitus,atherosclerosis is accelerated ,often resulting in coronary artery disease,myocardial infarction and stroke.
• Elevated Blood Lipids/cholesterol
• Smoking/Tobacco Use
• Promote regular physical activity and exercise.
• Encourage proper nutrition.
• Maintain body weight and prevent obesity.
• Advise smoking cessation for active smokers and prevent exposure to second hand smoke by family members,friends and co-workers of active smokers(passive smoking).
• Early diagnosis,prompt treatment and control of diabetes and hypertension.
• Studies have found that taking low-dose aspirin on a daily basis may help prevent the development cardiovascular disease in those 50 or older and are at risk of developing heart disease.
Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is classed as a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way
our bodies use digested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat is broken down into
glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood - it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies.
When our food is digested, the glucose makes its way into our bloodstream. Our cells use the
glucose for energy and growth. However, glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin being
present - insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose.
Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).
The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent
diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes
before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years.
Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.
The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not
react to insulin (insulin resistance).
Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.
Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels. However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease - it gradually gets worse - and the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form.
• Obese/Overweight- Being overweight /obese causes the body to release chemicals that
can destabilize the body's cardiovascular and metabolic systems.
• A lot of Visceral fat-Central Obesity(belly fat or abdominal obesity)
• Unhealthy Diet
• Physically Inactive
• Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
• Diet less in Fat
• Activity Level
Drinking just one can of (non-diet) soda per day can raise our risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22%, The scientists believe that the impact of sugary soft drinks on diabetes risk may be a direct one, rather than simply an influence on body weight.
• Promote regular physical activity and exercise.
• Encourage proper nutrition.
• Maintain body weight and prevent obesity.
This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in
their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the
glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy.
The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose- controlling medications. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. The baby may be bigger than he/she should be.
Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats.
Below is a list of possible complications that can be caused by badly controlled
• Eye complications - glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and some others.
• Foot complications - neuropathy, ulcers, and sometimes gangrene which may require that the foot be amputated
• Skin complications - people with diabetes are more susceptible to skin infections and skin disorders
• Heart problems - such as ischemic heart disease, when the blood supply to the heart muscle is diminished
• Hypertension - common in people with diabetes, which can raise the risk of kidney disease, eye problems, heart attack and stroke
• Mental health - uncontrolled diabetes raises the risk of suffering from depression, anxiety and some other mental disorders
• Hearing loss - diabetes patients have a higher risk of developing hearing problems
• Gum disease - there is a much higher prevalence of gum disease among diabetes patients
• Gastroparesis - the muscles of the stomach stop working properly
• Ketoacidosis - a combination of ketosis and acidosis; accumulation of ketone bodies and acidity in the blood.
• Neuropathy - diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage which can lead to several different problems.
• HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome) - blood glucose levels shoot up too high, and there are no ketones present in the blood or urine. It is an emergency condition.
• Nephropathy - uncontrolled blood pressure can lead to kidney disease
• PAD (peripheral arterial disease) - symptoms may include pain in the leg, tingling and sometimes problems walking properly
• Stroke - if blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels are not controlled, the risk of stroke increases significantly
• Erectile dysfunction - male impotence.
• Infections - people with badly controlled diabetes are much more susceptible to infections
• Healing of wounds - cuts and lesions take much longer to heal
• Tight glucose content.
• Quit Smoking.
• Maintain a healthy weight.
• Increase physical activiy levels.
• Drink an adequate amount of water and avoid consuming too much salt.
If you frequently experience shortness of breath or you hear a whistling or wheezy sound in your
chest when you breathe, you may have asthma — a chronic condition that causes inflammation and
narrowing of the bronchial tubes, the passageways that allow air to enter and leave the lungs. If
people with asthma are exposed to a substance to which they are sensitive or a situation that
changes their regular breathing patterns, the symptoms can become more severe. There are two
types of asthma: allergic (caused by exposure to an allergen) and non-allergic (caused by stress,
exercise, illnesses like a cold or the flu, or exposure to extreme weather, irritants in the air or some
What happens during an asthma attack?
• The muscles around your airways tighten up, narrowing the airway.
• Less air is able to flow through the airway.
• Inflammation of the airways increases, further narrowing the airway.
• More mucus is produced in the airways, undermining the flow of air even more.
• Airborne allergens, such as pollen, animal dander, mold, cockroaches and dust mites
• Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
• Physical activity (exercise-induced asthma)
• Cold air
• Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke
• Certain medications, including beta blockers, aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen (Aleve)
• Strong emotions and stress
• Sulfites and preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages, including shrimp, dried fruit, processed potatoes, beer and wine
• Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which stomach acids back up into your throat
It isn't clear why some people get asthma and others don't, but it's probably due to a
combination of environmental and genetic (inherited) factors.
• Get regular exercise. Having asthma doesn't mean you have to be less active. Treatment
can prevent asthma attacks and control symptoms during activity.
Regular exercise can strengthen your heart and lungs, which helps relieve asthma
symptoms. If you exercise in cold temperatures, wear a face mask to warm the air you
• Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight can worsen asthma symptoms, and it puts you at higher risk of other health problems.
• Control heartburn and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). It's possible that the acid reflux that causes heartburn may damage lung airways and worsen asthma symptoms. If you have frequent or constant heartburn, talk to your doctor about treatment options. You may need treatment for GERD before your asthma symptoms improve.
• Use your air conditioner. Air conditioning reduces the amount of airborne pollen from trees,
grasses and weeds that finds its way indoors. If you don't have air conditioning, try to keep your
windows closed during pollen season.
• Decontaminate your decor. Minimize dust that may worsen nighttime symptoms by replacing certain items in your bedroom. Remove carpeting and install hardwood or linoleum flooring. Use washable curtains and blinds.
• Maintain optimal humidity. If you live in a damp climate, talk to your doctor about using a dehumidifier.
• Reduce pet dander. If you're allergic to dander, avoid pets with fur or feathers. Having pets regularly bathed or groomed also may reduce the amount of dander in your surroundings.
• Cover your nose and mouth if it's cold out. If your asthma is worsened by cold or dry air, wearing a face mask can help.
Anemia is a condition that develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood
cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a main part of redblood cells and binds oxygen. If you have
too few or abnormal red blood cells, or your hemoglobin is abnormal or low, the cells in your
body will not get enough oxygen. Symptoms of anemia -- like fatigue -- occur because organs
aren't getting what they need to function properly. If iron deficiency anaemia is left untreated, it
can make you more susceptible to illness and infection, as a lack of iron affects the body's natural
defence system (the immune system).
Severe iron deficiency anaemia may increase your risk of developing complications that affect the heart
or lungs, such as an abnormally fast heartbeat (tachycardia) or heart failure, where your heart is unable
to pump enough blood around your body at the right pressure.
Pregnant women with severe or untreated anaemia also have a higher risk of complications before and
• Fatigue and loss of energy
• Unusually rapid heartbeat, particularly with exercise
• Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with exercise
• Difficulty concentrating
• Pale skin
• Leg cramps
• A sore or abnormally smooth tongue
• Hair loss
• A desire to eat non-food items, such as ice, paper or clay (pica)
• Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
• Painful open sores (ulcers) on the corners of your mouth
• Spoon-shaped nails
1. Iron Deficiency Anaemia
• Pregnancy or childhood growth spurts .Heavy menstrual periods.
• Poor absorption of iron may occur with some gut diseases - for example, coeliac disease and Crohn's disease.
• Bleeding from the gut (intestines). Some conditions of the gut can bleed enough to cause anaemia. You may not be aware of losing blood this way. The bleeding may be slow or intermittent, and you can pass blood out with your stools (faeces) without noticing.
• A poor or restricted diet
• Lack of certain vitamins such as folic acid and vitamin B12. See the separate leaflets called Folic Acid Deficiency Anaemia and Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Pernicious Anaemia
• Red blood cell problems such as thalassaemia, sickle cell anaemia and other causes of haemolytic anaemia. In these conditions the red cells are fragile and break easily in the bloodstream.
• Bone marrow problems and leukaemia are uncommon, but can cause anaemia.
•Other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and chronic kidney disease can also cause anaemia.
• Diet rich in iron should be taken
• Vitamin A is essential
• Eat a balanced healthy diet rich in iron.
• Reduce tea and coffee intake as they make it harder for your body to absorb iron.
• Increase vitamin C intake as it may help iron absorption.
• To prevent Iron Deficiency Anaemia,consume:
• Dark-green leafy vegetables, such as watercress and curly kale
• Iron-fortified cereals or bread
• Brown rice
• Pulses and beans
• Nuts and seeds
• Meat, fish and tofu
• Dried fruit, such as dried apricots, prunes and raisins
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or
both. Osteoporosis means “porous bone.” Viewed under a microscope, healthy bone looks like a honeycomb.
When osteoporosis occurs, the holes and spaces in the honeycomb are much larger than in healthy bone.
Osteoporotic bones have lost density or mass and contain abnormal tissue structure. As bones become less
dense, they weaken and are more likely to break. If you’re 50 or older and have broken a bone, ask your
doctor or healthcare provider about a bone density test.
Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such
as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur
in the hip, wrist or spine .Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced.
Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone.
• Gender- Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men.
• Race- You're at greatest risk of osteoporosis if you're white or of Asian descent.
• Family history
• Body frame size- Men and women who have small body frames tend to have a higher risk because they may have less bone mass to draw from as they age.
2) Hormone levels
Osteoporosis is more common in people who have too much or too little of certain hormones in their bodies. Examples include:
• Sex hormones. Lowered sex hormone levels tend to weaken bone. The reduction of estrogen levels in women at menopause is one of the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis. Men experience a gradual reduction in testosterone levels as they age. Treatments for prostate cancer that reduce testosterone levels in men and treatments for breast cancer that reduce estrogen levels in women are likely to accelerate bone loss.
• Thyroid problems. Too much thyroid hormone can cause bone loss. This can occur if your thyroid is overactive or if you take too much thyroid hormone medication to treat an underactive thyroid.
• Other glands. Osteoporosis has also been associated with overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.
3) Dietary factors
Osteoporosis is more likely to occur in people who have:
• Low calcium intake- liifelong lack of calcium plays a role in the development of osteoporosis. Low calcium intake contributes to diminished bone density, early bone loss and an increased risk of fractures.
• Eating disorders- Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women.
• Gastrointestinal surgery- Surgery to reduce the size of your stomach or to remove part of the intestine limits the amount of surface area available to absorb nutrients, including calcium.
4) Steroids and other medications
Long-term use of oral or injected corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone and cortisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process. Osteoporosis has also been associated with medications used to combat or prevent:
• Gastric reflux
• Transplant rejection
5) Medical conditions
The risk of osteoporosis is higher in people who have certain medical problems, including:
• Celiac disease
• Inflammatory bowel disease
• Kidney or liver disease
• Multiple myeloma
• Rheumatoid arthritis
6) Lifestyle choices
Some bad habits can increase your risk of osteoporosis.
• Sedentary lifestyle
People who spend a lot of time sitting have a higher risk of osteoporosis than do those who are more active. Any weight-bearing exercise and activities that promote balance and good posture are beneficial for your bones, but walking, running, jumping, dancing and weightlifting seem particularly helpful.
• Excessive alcohol consumption- Regular consumption of more than two alcoholic drinks a day increases your risk of osteoporosis.
• Tobacco use-The exact role tobacco plays in osteoporosis isn't clearly understood, but it has been shown that tobacco use contributes to weak bones.
• Salty Foods- Eating foods that have a lot of salt (sodium) causes your body to lose calcium and can
lead to bone loss.
• Alcohol- Drinking heavily can lead to bone loss. Limit alcohol to no more than 2 – 3 drinks per day.
• Caffeine- Coffee, tea and soft drinks (sodas) contain caffeine, which may decrease calcium absorption and contribute to bone loss. Choose these drinks in moderation.
• Coffee/Tea- Drinking more than three cups of coffee every day may interfere with calcium absorption and cause bone loss.
• Soft Drinks- Some studies suggest that colas, but not other soft drinks, are associated with bone loss.
• Get enough calcium and vitamin D and eat a well balanced diet
• Engage in regular exercise.
• Eat foods that are good for bone health, such as fruits and vegetables.
• Avoid smoking and limit alcohol to 2-3 drinks per day.
• Diet rich In dairy product , fish fortified foods should be taken.
• Vitamin D plays an important role in protecting your bones and your body requires it to absorb calcium.
Polycystic means "many cysts," and PCOS often causes clusters of small, pearl-sized cysts in the ovaries.
The cysts are fluid-filled and contain immature eggs. Women with PCOS produce slightly higher amounts
of male hormones known as androgens, which contribute to some of the symptoms of the condition.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS, is a condition in which a woman’s levels of the sex hormones
estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian cysts (benign masses
on the ovaries). PCOS can cause problems with a women’s menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function,
and appearance .Because PCOS is marked by a decrease in female sex hormones, this condition
may cause women to develop certain male characteristics, such as:
• Excess hair on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes
• Decrease in breast size
• Deeper voice
• Thin hair
• Weight gain
• Pelvic pain
• Anxiety or depression
Women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing:
• Hypertension (high blood pressure)
• High cholesterol
• Anxiety and depression
•Sleep apnea (when a person stops breathing periodically during sleep)
• Endometrial cancer (cancer caused by thickening of the lining of the uterus)
• Heart attack
• Breast cancer
• Hormonal Imbalance
• Overproduction of the hormone androgen-A male hormone also produced in woman which causes the change in appearances of females. Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS, is a condition in which a woman’s levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. This leads to the growth of ovarian cysts (benign masses on the ovaries). PCOS can cause problems with a women’s menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac function, and appearance.
• A healthy diet low in refined carbohydrates is important, as this can help regulate blood
• Exercise can also help the body regulate insulin and keep excess weight off. Losing weight is challenging with PCOS, but doing so can help reduce the male hormone levels in the body, and some women will begin to ovulate naturally.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome cannot be prevented. But early diagnosis and treatment helps
prevent long-term complications, such as infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and
• Eat a balanced diet-A diet that includes lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products supplies your body's nutritional needs, satisfies your hunger, and decreases your cravings. And a healthy diet makes you feel better and have more energy.
• Physical Activity
• A modest weight loss can improve high androgen and high insulin levels and infertility. Weight loss of as little as 5% to 7% over 6 months can reduce androgen levels enough to restore ovulation and fertility in more than 75% of women who have PCOS.
• Women who smoke have higher levels of androgens than women who don't smoke.